The Marine chapter of the 2016 State of the Environment (SoE) report incorporates multiple expert templates developed from
streams of marine data. This metadata record describes the Expert Assessment "The state and trends of marine turtles". The
full Expert Assessment, including figures and tables (where provided), is attached to this record. Where available, the
Data Stream(s) used to generate this Expert Assessment are accessible through the "On-line Resources" section of this record.
DESCRIPTION OF TAXONOMIC GROUP FOR EXPERT ASSESSMENT
Six species of marine turtles reside in the marine habitats of Australia, predominantly north of 29 °S. All six species migrate
between foraging and nesting sites. Post hatchlings of five species undertake oceanic migrations which take them outside
of Australia’s EEZ. The flatback turtle has a life history largely contained within the waters of the Australian EEZ. Each
species can be separated into genetically distinct management units (MUs) and Australia shares these many of these MUs with
neighbouring nations. This assessment focusses on the state and trend of marine turtles in their offshore foraging areas;
nesting beaches are covered in the coasts chapter.
DATA STREAM(S) USED IN EXPERT ASSESSMENT
Data on state and trends and associated spatial and temporal coverage are detailed in the publications provided in the reference
list and is based on state government agency and independent surveys.
2016 SOE ASSESSMENT SUMMARY [see attached Expert Assessment for full details]
• 2016 •
Assessment grade: Poor-good
Assessment trend: Unclear
Confidence grade: Limited evidence or limited consensus
Confidence trend: Limited evidence or limited consensus
Comparability: Grade and trend are comparable to the 2011 assessment
• 2011 •
Assessment grade: Poor
Assessment trend: Stable
CHANGES SINCE 2011 SOE ASSESSMENT
The 2016 is based on the most recent information on populations.
Alfaro‐Shigueto, J., Mangel, J. C., Bernedo, F., Dutton, P. H., Seminoff, J. A., and Godley, B. J. (2011). Small‐scale fisheries
of Peru: a major sink for marine turtles in the Pacific. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48(6), 1432-1440.
Bell, I., Schwarzkopf, L., and Manicom, C. (2012). High survivorship of an annually decreasing aggregation of hawksbill turtles,
Eretmochelys imbricata, found foraging in the northern Great Barrier Reef. Aquatic Conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems,
Chaloupka, M., and Limpus, C. (2001). Trends in the abundance of sea turtles resident in southern Great Barrier Reef waters.
Biological Conservation, 102(3), 235-249.
FitzSimmons, N. N., and Limpus, C. J. (2014). Marine turtle genetic stocks of the Indo-Pacific: identifying boundaries and
knowledge gaps. Indian Ocean Turtle Newsletter, 20, 2-18.
Limpus, C. J. (2009). A biological review of Australian marine turtles; Green turtles. Queensland Environmental Protection
Agency, pp. 324.
Limpus, C. J. and Casale, P (2015) IUCN red list assessment for the Loggerhead Turtle, Caretta caretta: South Pacific subpopulation.
IUCN Red List http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/84156809/0
Riskas, K. A., Fuentes, M. M., and Hamann, M. (2016). Justifying the need for collaborative management of fisheries bycatch:
A lesson from marine turtles in Australia. Biological Conservation, 196, 40-47.
Schuyler, Q., Hardesty, B. D., Wilcox, C., and Townsend, K. (2014). Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea
turtles. Conservation biology, 28(1), 129-139.
Vegter, A. C., Barletta, M., Beck, C., Borrero, J., Burton, H., Campbell, M. L., ... & Gilardi, K. (2014). Global research
priorities to mitigate plastic pollution impacts on marine wildlife. Endangered Species Research, 25(3), 225-247.
QUALITY OF DATA USED IN THE ASSESSMENT
Data derived from formal surveys and published analysis methods.
CUSTODIAN AND LOCATION OF DATA
Most of the monitoring data on marine turtles is collected and managed by State Government Agencies. The Queensland and
Western Australian Governments manage marine turtle stranding databases. Fisheries bycatch data is collected and reported
on by State and Australian Fisheries Agencies/Departments (details of specific data sets used to generate the assessment
have not been provided).
METHOD USED TO DETERMINE STATE OR RECENT TREND
Output from surveys published in relevant reports and publications.
When citing this Expert Assessment in a list of references use the following format:
citation author name/s (year metadata published), metadata title. Citation author organisation/s. File identifier and Data
accessed at (add http link).