The Marine chapter of the 2016 State of the Environment (SoE) report incorporates multiple expert templates developed from
streams of marine data. This metadata record describes the Expert Assessment "Effectiveness of marine management of commercial
fishing". The full Expert Assessment, including figures and tables (where provided), is attached to this record. Where
available, the Data Stream(s) used to generate this Expert Assessment are accessible through the "On-line Resources" section
of this record.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESSURE BEING MANAGED, AND ITS IMPACT
Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) is a common objective across all Australian jurisdictions resulting in a good
level of understanding of the direct pressures commercial fishing has on the marine environment. All Australian jurisdictions
have introduced one or more measures to address those pressures that are increasingly based on risk assessment and implementing
a management response. These include harvest strategies for the main commercial species, adaptive management involving expert
judgement, more quantitative management strategy evaluation, ecosystem modelling and broader ecological risk assessments.
There is now a greater understanding of the effects of climate change and ocean acidification on the marine environment
and the need to consider this when determining appropriate fisheries management responses. However, management agencies
are yet to integrate all the available science into their management systems.
Likewise, current habitat analysis work will identify the emerging priorities in managing the environmental effects on habitats
of commercial fishing. Spatial management has been introduced to mitigate the impacts on both vulnerable species and habitats
where identified i.e. gulper shark closures in the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery and the introduction
of gillnet zoning closures to limit interactions with the Australian sea lion. Similarly, spatial closures that specifically
prohibit trawling within seagrass and other sensitive nursery habitats are often used for many fisheries including, for example,
the Shark Bay and Exmouth Gulf prawn trawl fisheries in Western Australia.
Specific mitigation measures for protected species are also used to reduce the effects of commercial fishing. This includes
such things as: seal and turtle excluder devices, square mesh panels in trawls, tori lines and other sea bird deterrent
devices. Education programs for the fishing industry have also been improved to provide a greater understanding of how to
avoid and/or handle protected species.
DATA STREAM(S) USED IN EXPERT ASSESSMENT
The assessment is based on relevant literature and reports on current management measures associated with commercial fishing
– a list is provided in the attached Expert Assessment.
2016 SOE ASSESSMENT SUMMARY [see attached Expert Assessment for full details]
• Understanding of pressure: Understanding of fisheries and effective management frameworks is reasonably high and improving.
• Planning associated with management of pressure: Improved planning processes directed towards research and risk-based
assessment processes are resulting in more robust outcomes.
• Input for informing management of pressure: Greater use of technology for data collection informs management decisions
and measures the trajectory of trends over time.
• Processes associated with developing, monitoring, and updating management: Improved processes have been developed to expand
the range of fishery assessment tools with an increased use of risk-based approaches.
• Outputs from management framework in place: Biennial State of key Australian Fish Stocks Report form the primary assessment
output for national commercial fisheries.
• Outcomes of management framework in place: Improvements in data gathering and reporting direct resources towards commercial
fishing operations that pose the highest risk to the marine environment.
CHANGES SINCE 2011 SOE ASSESSMENT
The Status of Key Australian Fish Stocks reports (2012, 2014) have been published providing for more comprehensive assessments
of stocks across jurisdictions. Commercial, recreational and traditional fishing were assessed under the one assessment
in 2011. Due to the differing impacts, differing jurisdictional coverage and differing management frameworks for commercial,
recreational and traditional fishing they have been separated in the 2016 report.
Status of Key Australian Fish Stocks Reports 2012, Status of Key Australian Fish Stocks Reports 2014, Fisheries Research
and Development Corporation, Canberra. http://www.agriculture.gov.au/abares/publications/display?url=http://220.127.116.11/anrdl/DAFFService/display.php?fid=pg_skafsd0_f___00120121211_11a.xml
Flood, M, Stobutzki, I, Andrews, J, Ashby, C, Begg, G, Fletcher, R, Gardner, C, Georgeson, L, Hansen, S, Hartmann, K, Hone,
P, Horvat, P, Maloney, L, McDonald, B, Moore, A, Roelofs, A, Sainsbury, K, Saunders, T, Smith, T, Stewardson, C, Stewart,
J & Wise, B (eds) 2014, Status of key Australian fish stocks reports 2014, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation,
Tuck G.N., Knuckey, I. and Klaer, N.L. 2013. Informing the review of the Commonwealth Policy on Fisheries Bycatch through
assessing trends in bycatch of key Commonwealth fisheries. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation final report
2012/046. 240p. http://fish.gov.au/Pages/SAFS_Report.aspx
Haddon, M., Klaer, N., Smith, D.C., Dichmont, C.D. and A.D.M. Smith (2012) Technical reviews for the Commonwealth Harvest
Strategy Policy. FRDC 2012/225. CSIRO. Hobart. 69 p. http://www.agriculture.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/fisheries/environment/bycatch/submissions/report-technical.pdfhttp://www.agriculture.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/fisheries/environment/bycatch/submissions/report-technical.pdf
National Marine Science | Plan Driving the development of Australia’s blue economy. http://frdc.com.au/environment/NMSC-WHITE/Documents/NMSP%202015-2025%20report.pdf
THE FISHERIES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION’S RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND EXTENSION PLAN 2015–20. http://frdc.com.au/research/Documents/FRDC_RDE-Plan_2015-20.pdf
QUALITY OF DATA USED IN THE ASSESSMENT
Not applicable (assessment has been conducted by literature review).
CUSTODIAN AND LOCATION OF DATA
METHOD USED TO DETERMINE STATE OR RECENT TREND
When citing this Expert Assessment in a list of references use the following format:
citation author name/s (year metadata published), metadata title. Citation author organisation/s. File identifier and Data
accessed at (add http link).