The Marine chapter of the 2016 State of the Environment (SoE) report incorporates multiple expert templates developed from
streams of marine data. This metadata record describes the Expert Assessment "Effectiveness of marine management of marine
debris". The full Expert Assessment, including figures and tables (where provided), is attached to this record. Where available,
the Data Stream(s) used to generate this Expert Assessment are accessible through the "On-line Resources" section of this
DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESSURE BEING MANAGED, AND ITS IMPACT
There is a good understanding of the potential sources of marine debris, however the distribution of various forms of marine
debris in the marine environment is less well known although improving. Understanding of the impacts on the marine environment
and knowledge of the key species at risk are improving and is an area of active research. In some cases predictions of impacts
are made using limited scientific evidence, with available studies focused on acute impacts on individuals rather than long-term
population consequences. Some work has been done in modelling the distribution and trajectories of marine debris, however
there has been limited in-field verification of modelled outputs.
DATA STREAM(S) USED IN EXPERT ASSESSMENT
Data and analyses published in peer reviewed publications and agency reports. Details of the specific data sets used to generate
this assessment have not been provided.
2016 SOE ASSESSMENT SUMMARY [see attached Expert Assessment for full details]
• Understanding of pressure: Local sources of marine debris are well known with increasing understanding of sources from neighbouring
areas; knowledge of impacts is increasing however requires a greater level of understanding.
• Planning associated with management of pressure: International conventions addressing the release of marine debris are in
place and there are some efforts to improve waste reception facilities at both local and neighbouring international ports,
however there are few practical arrangements in place for comprehensive and coordinated mitigation.
• Input for informing management of pressure: Waste management programs have been developed but are yet to be implemented
into fishery management arrangements and identification of port waste reception facilities is currently voluntary.
• Processes associated with developing, monitoring, and updating management: Management frameworks for land based sources
operate across multiple jurisdictions that are not coordinated and there is currently no clear management framework at the
Australian government level.
• Outputs from management framework in place: Measures made against the objectives of the Threat Abatement Plan have been
identified as being ineffective at addressing threats associated with marine debris.
• Outcomes of management framework in place: Marine debris continues to impact species and ecosystems with no decline in
pressures on the marine environment.
CHANGES SINCE 2011 SOE ASSESSMENT
The assessment is consistent with the assessment provided in the 2011 report.
DEWHA. 2009. Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life. Department of the Environment,
Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra.
DoE. 2015. Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life. Review 2009-2014. Department
of the Environment, Canberra
ECRC. 2016. Toxic tide: the threat of marine pollution in Australia. The Senate Environment and Communications References
Hardesty, B.D., Wilcox, C., Lawson, T.J., Lansdell, M., van der Velde, T. 2014. Understanding the effects of marine debris
on wildlife. A Final report to Earthwatch Australia. CSIRO, Hobart.
QUALITY OF DATA USED IN THE ASSESSMENT
CUSTODIAN AND LOCATION OF DATA
Various research, non-governmental and government agencies (details of specific data sets used to generate the assessment
have not been provided).
METHOD USED TO DETERMINE STATE OR RECENT TREND
Expert assessment based on data and analyses available, input from a series of independent experts.
When citing this Expert Assessment in a list of references use the following format:
citation author name/s (year metadata published), metadata title. Citation author organisation/s. File identifier and Data
accessed at (add http link).