The Marine chapter of the 2016 State of the Environment (SoE) report incorporates multiple expert templates developed from
streams of marine data. This metadata record describes the Expert Assessment "Effectiveness of marine management of marine
mining and industry". The full Expert Assessment, including figures and tables (where provided), is attached to this record.
Where available, the Data Stream(s) used to generate this Expert Assessment are accessible through the "On-line Resources"
section of this record.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESSURE BEING MANAGED, AND ITS IMPACT
The potential for a wide variety of mineral resources exists within Australia’s maritime jurisdiction (see Table 1 in attached
Expert Assessment). However marine mining and related industries remain an “emerging industry” and there is currently a
low level of understanding of pressures and management strategies. Globally, the marine mining industry is more advanced
and is supported by a growing body of research investigating the likely environmental impacts and mitigation strategies.
Currently there are no offshore mining activities in Australia other than the well-established shell sand mining operation
in Cockburn Sound (Fremantle, WA) and sand mining in Moreton Bay (Queensland). Both operations were granted extraction licences
by state departments subject to strict environmental controls particularly relating to seagrass meadow replanting (Cockburn
Sound) and sediment plumes (Moreton Bay). Other submissions to state and federal governments to explore and potentially
exploit seafloor resources elsewhere in Australia, have been rejected or stalled due to the lack of existing base line knowledge,
lack of community support, and poor understanding of the potential social and environmental impacts of such activities.
DATA STREAM(S) USED IN EXPERT ASSESSMENT
Published papers and reports (assessment has been conducted by literature review).
2016 SOE ASSESSMENT SUMMARY [see attached Expert Assessment for full details]
• Understanding of pressure: Marine mining occurs on a local scale. Likely environmental impacts unclear with only ad hoc
• Planning associated with management of pressure: Resource assessment and planning is ad hoc and conducted on local scales,
driven by commercial constraints and community pressures.
• Input for informing management of pressure: Limited data available. International studies and established marine mining
codes of conduct can inform understanding and planning.
• Processes associated with developing, monitoring, and updating management: Federal and state regulatory framework largely
untested except where the marine mining is established. State-level decisions limited to temporary moratoria.
• Outputs from management framework in place: Established operations have management programs; proposed operations have only
desktop analysis. Limited research outputs exist (bathymetric mapping, benthic surveys etc.).
• Outcomes of management framework in place: Established operations mitigate for local impacts, though not cumulative impacts.
CHANGES SINCE 2011 SOE ASSESSMENT
Marine mining is limited in Australian waters with little change since 2011.
AIMS, 2014, The AIMS Index of Marine Industry 12pp.
ITLOS, 2011, Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS), Responsibilities and
Obligations of States Sponsoring Persons and Entities with Respect to Activities in the Area, Advisory Opinion, 1 February
2011 (ITLOS Advisory Opinion)
IMMS, Code of Environmental Management, http://www.immsoc.org/IMMS_code.htm, accessed 18/03/16
ISA, The Mining Code https://www.isa.org.jm/mining-code accessed 18/03/16
Mason, C., Paxton, G., Parsons, R., Parr, J., Moffat, K., 2014, “For the Benefit of Australians”: Exploring expectations
for the mining industry from a national perspective, Resources Policy, 41, 1-8.
QUALITY OF DATA USED IN THE ASSESSMENT
Publications have been peer-reviewed.
CUSTODIAN AND LOCATION OF DATA
Data associated with publications proprietary with relevant institutions/agencies (details of the specific data products used
in this assessment have not been provided).
METHOD USED TO DETERMINE STATE OR RECENT TREND
When citing this Expert Assessment in a list of references use the following format:
citation author name/s (year metadata published), metadata title. Citation author organisation/s. File identifier and Data
accessed at (add http link).