The Marine chapter of the 2016 State of the Environment (SoE) report incorporates multiple expert templates developed from
streams of marine data. This metadata record describes the Expert Assessment "The state and trends of habitats and communities
- water column, slope (250 m -700 m)". The full Expert Assessment, including figures and tables (where provided), is attached
to this record. Where available, the Data Stream(s) used to generate this Expert Assessment are accessible through the "On-line
Resources" section of this record.
DESCRIPTION OF HABITAT/COMMUNITY FOR EXPERT ASSESSMENT
The major determinants of pelagic habitat can be considered to be temperature (T), salinity (S), light, nutrients, dissolved
oxygen (DO), pH, and food availability. The slope waters around Australia are generally warm, saline, well illuminated,
low in nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish. The primary pressures affecting the pelagic biota in slope waters
are related to climatic cycles (e.g. ENSO) and long term climate change impacting on T, S, DO, pH and fishing. The slope
waters are particularly sensitive to changes in our boundary currents, the EAC and the Leeuwin which generally flow south,
seaward of the shelf break. The pelagic productivity of the slope waters provides most of the food to animals in these waters
and on the bottom. The shelf edge canyons can enhance upwelling or ‘capture’ eddies that act to focus phytoplankton into
these features. Data collection is sparse but IMOS continuous plankton recorder (CPR) routes around Australia sample largely
from this region.
DATA STREAM(S) USED IN EXPERT ASSESSMENT
Data are computed from the level 3 (L3) daily global products using one merging method following Maritorena and Siegel, (2005).
Details can be found at http://www.globcolour.info/products_description.html
2016 SOE ASSESSMENT SUMMARY [see attached Expert Assessment for full details]
• 2016 •
Assessment grade: Good
Assessment trend: Unclear
Confidence grade: Limited evidence or limited consensus
Confidence trend: Limited evidence or limited consensus
Comparability: Grade and trend are comparable to the 2011 assessment
• 2011 •
Assessment trend: Stable
CHANGES SINCE 2011 SOE ASSESSMENT
This assessment uses observations from a greater range of spatial and temporal scales allowing a much better assessment
of current state and trends to be made. There is also a statistical analysis of temporal change in zooplankton biomass.
Feng, M., McPhaden, M. J., Xie, S., & Hafner, J. 2013. La Niña forces unprecedented Leeuwin Current warming in 2011. Scientific
Reports 3, 1277; DOI:10.1038/srep01277.
Feng, M., Meyers, G., Pearce, A., Wijffels, S. 2003. Annual and interannual variations of the Leeuwin Current at 32°S. J.
Geophys. Res. 108, NO. C11, 3355, doi:10.1029/2002JC001763
Foster, S.D., Griffin, D.A., Dunstan, P.K. 2014. Twenty Years of High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Imagery around Australia:
Inter-Annual and Annual Variability. PLoS ONE 9(7): e100762. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100762
Hill, K.L., Rintoul, S.R., Ridgway, K. and Oke, P.R. (2011) Decadal changes in the South Pacific western boundary current
system revealed in observations and reanalysis state estimates, Geophysical Research Letters, 116, doi:10.1029/2009JC005926
Johnson CR, Banks SC, Barrett NS; Cazassus F; Dunstan PK; Edgar GJ; Frusher SD; Gardner C; Helidoniotis F; Holbrook NJ; Ling
SD; Melbourne-Thomas J; Miller K; Pecl GT; Ritz DA; Ross DJ; Sanderson JC; Swadling KM. 2011. 'Climate change cascades:
Shifts in oceanography, species' ranges and subtidal marine community dynamics in eastern Tasmania', Journal of Experimental
Marine Biology and Ecology, 400, (1-2) pp. 17-32. ISSN 0022-0981 (2011) [Refereed Article]
Maritorena, S. and Siegel, D.A. 2005. Consistent Merging of Satellite Ocean Colour Data Sets Using a Bio-Optical Model. Remote
Sensing of Environment, 94, 4, 429-440.
Oliver, E. C. J., and N. J. Holbrook. 2014. Extending our understanding of South Pacific gyre “spin-up”: Modeling the East
Australian Current in a future climate, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, 2788–2805, doi:10.1002/2013JC009591.
Richarson, A.J., Eriksen, R.S., Rochester, W. 2015. Plankton 2015. State of Australia’s oceans. CSIRO Report. ISBN 978-1-4863-0565-0.
Ridgway K.R. 2007. Long-term trend and decadal variability of the southward penetration of the East Australian Current,
Geophys Res Lett 34 L13613. doi:10.1029/2007GL030393.
Roemmich, D., J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser, 2006. Decadal spin-up of the South Pacific subtropical
gyre. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 37: 162-173.
Siegel DA, Behrenfeld MJ, Maritorena S, McClain, C.R., Anoine, D., Bailey, S.W., Botempi, P.S., Boss, E.S., Dierssen, H.M.,
Doney, S.C., Eplee, Jr., R.E., Evens, R.H., Feldman, G.C., Fields, E., Franz, B.A., Kuring, N.A., Mengelt, C., Nelson,
N.B., Patt, F.S., Robinson, W.D., Sarmento, J.L., Swan, C.M., Werdell, P.J., Westbury, T.K., Wilding, J.G., Yoder, J.A. 2013.
Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission. Remote Sensing of Environment, 135, 77–91.
Thompson, P.A., T. O’Brien, K. Isensee, L. Lorenzoni, et al., 2016a. The South Pacific Ocean. In, O’Brien, K. Isensee, L.
Lorenzoni, L., [Eds.]. UNESCO. In review.
Thompson, P.A., T. O’Brien, K. Isensee, L. Lorenzoni, L. E. Beckley, et al., 2016b. The Indian Ocean. In, O’Brien, K. Isensee,
L. Lorenzoni, L., [Eds.]. UNESCO. In review.
Watson, R.A., G.B. Nowara, S.R. Tracey, E.A. Fulton, C.M. Bulman, G.J. Edgar, N.S. Barrett, J.M. Lyle, S.D. Frusher, C.D.
Buxton. 2013. Ecosystem model of Tasmanian waters explores impacts of climate-change induced changes in primary productivity.
Ecol. Model., 264 : 115–129.
QUALITY OF DATA USED IN THE ASSESSMENT
Spatial and temporal coverage are excellent. Conversion of ocean colour to chlorophyll a introduces a source of potential
error. Data could be extracted for each region to allow improved regional assessments of state and trend.
CUSTODIAN AND LOCATION OF DATA
The remotely sensed data and details can be found at http://www.globcolour.info/products_description.html
METHOD USED TO DETERMINE STATE OR RECENT TREND
Linear regression fit to each pixel over the duration from 1997 to 2015.
When citing this Expert Assessment in a list of references use the following format:
citation author name/s (year metadata published), metadata title. Citation author organisation/s. File identifier and Data
accessed at (add http link).